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    Please Explain Enthalpy Of Hydration? Please tell by giving example of cuso4anhydrous and hydrated

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      Hydration enthalpy is the energy released when 1 mol of a substance is dissolved into a solution.
      It is always negative, as bonds (e.g. dative, ion-dipole) are being formed.When the solvent is other than water the process is referred to as solvation..

      The enthalpy change of a solution is equal to the sum of three different energy transfer processes
      first is the lattice energy, the second is enthalpy change of hydration of cation and the third is the
      enthalpy change of hydration of anion.

      By definition, the enthalpy change of hydration Delta H hyd is the enthalpy change that takes place when 1 mole of gaseous ion is dissolved in excess water to make one mole aqueous ion.

      Significance of hydration enthalpy

      It offers a n indication of the strength of the interaction of water molecules with the ions.

      Enthalpy change of hydration is always exothermic since it involves bond making
      Lattice energy contribution is always endothermic since as it involves bond breaking
      of positive and negative ions in the molecule. The lattice energy and sum of two
      enthalpy changes of hydration have roughly same magnitude but are of oposte sign

      So overall, the enthalpy change of solution is very small.

      Example : Hydration of CuSO4

      As explained above, the process can be explained as written below:

      delta ( hydration ) H CuSO4 = ( delta molar enthalpy of CuSO4 solution – delta molar enthalpy of CuSO4.5H2O)

      delta molar enthalpy of CuSO4 solution = – 66.2 kj/mol
      delta molar enthalpy of CuSO4.5H2O = + 11.5 kj / mol

      delta ( hydration ) H CuSO4 , would therefore be equal to [ – 66.2 – ( – 11.5 ) ] = – 77.5 kj / mol

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    Hydration Pack For Running – Worth While? Are hydration packs for running a good idea? I???m stepping up my distances to enter my first half marathon in a few months, and whilst the training is going ok, my mouth feels very dry toward the end of longer runs, and I seem to drink glass after glass of water afterwards. Someone mentioned a hydration pack would be a good option, but that sounds a bit bulky for running with isn???t it?

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      You don't say how far you're running, but in preparation for a half marathon, maybe 10 miles or so. What you describe sounds like sports dehydration. This can be handled in a few ways. You need to make sure you take on enough fluids before hand. Start drinking water or sports drink several hours before hand and make sure your passing very light coloured urine ( a sign you're well hydrated). Then stop about an hour before, so you're not bursting for a pee the whole way round!

      If you do this, the main concern would be the temperature when you're running. Obviously you sweat more on a hot day. You can measure this by weighting yourself naked directly before and after a 1hr run. The lost weight is fluid loss. This will help you plan your hydration.

      You can get waist hydration packs: . These are ideal for running. They hold from say 750ml upto 1.5 litres depending on the brand and model. Sipping regularly on you run will off set some fluid loss... although you might be surprised how much you lose... sounds like you are surprised.

      So in short, yea they can be a good option. I have used one in the past and didn't find it bulky. Try it on training runs first though. Good luck.

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    Difference Between Hydration, Hydrolysis And Condensation? What are the exact definitions and difference between hydration, hydrolysis and condensation reactions in organic chemistry, and what are the reverse reactions of all of these called?
    Thank you
    I meant condensation as in condensation polymerisation, like making a protein from amino acids

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      Hydration occurs when water is added to a molecule via an addition reaction. The opposite of this is dehydration, where water is removed by an elimination reaction.

      Example: The formation of an alcohol from an alkene is a hydration reaction. The formation of an alkene from an alcohol is a dehydration reaction.

      Hydrolysis reactions are when water is used to split a molecule up. The opposite of this is a condensation reaction, when water is removed by two molecules reacting together to form a larger molecule.

      Example: Hydrolysis of an ester requires water. The formation of an ester releases water and is a condensation reaction.

      Condensation reactions are when two molecules react to form a larger molecule with the removal of another small molecule. The opposite would be

      Example: When forming an amide from an acyl chloride and an amine, hydrogen chloride is released and an amide is formed, which is a larger molecule.

      So what are the differences?
      Hydration reactions are when water is added to a molecule. This does not necessarily split a molecule like hydrolysis does. Hydrolysis involves water splitting a molecule. Condensation reactions do not always require water to be the small molecule – in the example above, HCl is the small molecule released. ?

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    Whats A Hydration Test? I need one for wrestling

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      Two hours prior to hydration test have wrestler drink 24 ounces of water (three cups).
      Drink 8 to 10 (8 ounces) glasses of water, or non-caffeinated beverages daily.
      * Drink another 4 cups for every hour you workout. If you have a 2-hour football practice,
      that means an additional 8 cups of fluids. Individuals who sweat heavily or are in a hot
      environment may need to drink 6 to 8 cups of non-caffeinated beverage for each hour
      they workout.
      * 2 hours before the game, match or hydration test, drink 16 to 24 ounces of water or noncaffeinated
      beverage. The 2-hour time frame will allow the body to clear excess fluid
      from the body. Being dehydrated, then drinking immediately prior to an athletic contest
      or the hydration test will do little to help improve performance or pass the hydration test.
      * These tips stress avoiding caffeine, because caffeine is a diuretic. That means it
      increases urine production. Increased urine production means you are losing extra
      fluids, essential for top performance and will likely become dehydrated. Caffeine is a
      common ingredient in some sodas, coffee beverages and some teas. Chocolate and
      some pain relievers may also contain caffeine. Additionally, carbonated beverages will
      also contribute to the sensation of "feeling full" or bloated. This sensation may be
      counter-productive, as it will likely diminish the thirst drive.
      Also you have misplaced this, it is in the wrong category this should not be placed under cycling…

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    What Is Hydration Energy?

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      Hydration Energy is involved in the solution process. The solution process involves three steps all embracing a change in enthalpy. The first delta H (change in enthalpy) is the process by which water molecules overcome attractive forces in the solute particles to break chemical bonds. This process is endothermic. The second step delta H 2 is the separation of solvent molecules to accommodate the solute. This step also requires energy and is endothermic (delta H is greater than 0) The final step is the formation of new attractive interactions between solute and solvent particles and is exothermic (delta H is less than 0). The sum of delta H 1, 2, and 3 is the overall enthalpy of the solution process and this sum is known as the hydration energy. If the sum of delta H 1 and 2 is greater in magnitude than the delta H 3 (which is a negative number) the overall process will be endothermic. If the sum of delta H 1 and 2 is lesser in magnitude than delta H 3 the overall process will be exothermic.

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    What Is Hydration Therapy?

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      Hydration therapy is used when a patient is dehydrated, or needs liquids. Because blood is almost all liquid, deyhdration can cause it to thicken. That puts a strain on the heart and makes it difficult for the blood to reach all parts of the body. Severe dehydration can lead to major health problems, even death.

      The therapy consists of administering a saline solution (salt and water) intravenously (by IV). The saline in the IV helps the body retain the water, rather than convert it to urine.

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    What Do You Do In A Hydration Test For Wrestling ? What exactly do they make you do besides testing your urine? Also, what do you have to wear for it? My test is tomorrow.

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      Hydration Tip Sheet for Better Results

      Athletes need to be hydrated properly in order to get the best results when they do their body composition testing. Make sure you are working with the coaches, athletes and parents to educate them about how the testing works and what the results will mean as the season gets underway. Past practices of dehydrating for weigh-ins should be discouraged.

      In the days Leading Up to Testing

      Continue drinking fluids at the recommended rate for sports participation.
      Urine should be clear when athlete is adequately hydrated.
      Limit high fat foods.
      Avoid foods high in sodium.

      The day of the assessment-for best results- the following factors should be controlled:
      ? No caffeine, no diuretics in 12 hours.
      ? No food or drink within past two hours
      ? No exercise within past four hours
      ? No alcohol within past 24 hours
      ? No thick heel calluses.

      If they exercise prior to testing, the dehydration could cause them to have a higher % body fat than if they are better hydrated and at rest. Eating immediately prior to testing can give a false result- lower than it really is because they have an increase in total body water from consuming the meal. It is suggested that testing later in the day (5-6 pm is given as the ideal time), as opposed to early in the morning prevents the likelihood of an athlete showing up moderately dehydrated.

      What Conditions Might Cause Skewed Results or Give an "ERROR" Reading

      A very full bladder.
      Severe calluses on heels or soles of feet (Tanita says 1 out of 400 people tested).
      Unclean footpads may interfere with conductivity.
      Subject is wearing nylons. Tanita suggests that if it is absolutely necessary to wear nylons, add a drop of isopropyl (rubbing) alcohol to act as a conductor.
      Pre-menstruation phase.


      The following are tips that will help wrestlers report to body fat testing properly

      Two days prior to test day:
      Drink plenty of fluids throughout the day, (Water has no calories). Athletes should be drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water during the day.
      Increase the intake of foods high in fiber- this will help with the removal of excess waste from body. (salad, cereal with skim milk, vegetables, fruits, etc are examples of foods high in fiber).
      Eat smaller, more frequent meals.
      AVOID foods high in fat (fried foods, meat, French fries, pizza, nuts, salad dressings, etc.).
      AVOID salty foods (potato chips, pretzels, pizza, tuna, crackers, soft drinks, sports drinks).
      Be sure that you eat and drink, do not dehydrate!

      One day before test:
      Continue drinking fluids, you should be urinating on a frequent basis. Urine should be clear if you are fully hydrated, drink 12 to 20 ounces of a sport drink along with water.
      Eat smaller, but more frequent meals. Continue eating fibrous foods, to eliminate excessive waste from body.
      Fatty foods/ snacks will stay in your body- STAY AWAY!!!

      Day of Test:
      Eat small portions, eat a very light lunch (if afternoon testing).
      Eat lighter foods such as fruit, grains, etc.
      Continue to drink water.
      DO NOT drink salty drinks such as Sodas, Gatorade or Powerade, etc...This will cause you to retain fluids
      Urinate as frequently as possible throughout the day until one-two hours prior to test time.
      Use the bathroom (defecate) before the test.
      Please be ready to urinate for hydration test.

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    Which Is Better For Hydration? It’s been extremely hot lately, and everyone talks about keeping hydrated.

    I know water is good for you, but what about Gatorade (I prefer the low calorie kind)? I know pop and beer don’t work to keep you hydrated, but will Gatorade work as well or better than water?

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      Gatorade contains glucose which can provide energy and replenish electrolytes lost through sweat. In general however, the sugars and harmful additives in it are not only bad for you, they are also an unnecessary way of restoring hydration. Water is just as good so not only does it provide good hydration, but good health as well. To answer your question more specifically however in reference to only hydration, both would have the same effect. However, Gatorade is usually consumed during physical activity, not hot days so water is safer and a more refreshing way to beat the heat.

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    What Are Hydration Statins? I have to write about them in english please help!!

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      Do you mean hydration stations? Colleges and a few businesses have been putting up hydration stations where people can refill and reuse their water bottles or other plastic bottles. It’s an effort to help with recycling because of all of the plastic bottles that are thrown away. I know that Kaiser Aluminum Research and Development was already doing this at various places in their large facility over ten years ago.

      Here’s an article about some colleges which are using hydration stations. Along with the pros, you might want to consider writing about the cons. For example, what is being done to keep these stations sanitary, what style design would be best in terms of sanitary use, and what is the quality of the water.

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    Hydration??? Okay here is the question.

    say you are dying of thirst. my question is if you have a glass of cold water and a glass of warm/hot water. Would the cold one hydrate you more, or is it the same?

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      I think cold water would hydrate you more

      probably due to this

      as temperature of water decreases its volume decreases until it reaches 4 degrees centigrade where it increases

      so one glad of cold ater has its molecules closer therefore hydration is higher in the cold rather than warm

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