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Best Description Of Nutrition? What is the longest and most indepth description of nutrition you can give me? thanks alot ?
Nutrition is the provision, to cells and organisms, of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with good nutrition.
The diet of an organism refers to what it eats. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in human nutrition, meal planning, economics, preparation, and so on. They are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and management to individuals (in health and disease), as well as to institutions.
Poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy, beriberi, and kwashiorkor; health-threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis.
Nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to diet. With advances in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics, the study of nutrition is increasingly concerned with metabolism and metabolic pathways, the sequences of biochemical steps through which the many substances of living things change from one form to another.
The human body contains chemical compounds, such as water, carbohydrates (sugar, starch, and fiber), amino acids (in proteins), fatty acids (in lipids), and nucleic acids (DNA/RNA). These compounds, in turn, consist of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and so on. All of these chemical compounds and elements occur in various forms and combinations (e.g. hormones/vitamins, phospholipids, hydroxyapatite), both in the human body and in organisms (e.g. plants, animals) that humans eat.
The human body consists of elements and compounds ingested, digested, absorbed, and circulated through the bloodstream. Except in the unborn fetus, it is the digestive system which carries out the first steps in feeding the cells of the body. In a typical adult, about seven liters of digestive juices enter the lumen of the digestive tract. They break chemical bonds in ingested molecules and modulate their conformations and energy states. Though some molecules are absorbed into the bloodstream unchanged, digestive processes release them from the matrix of foods in which they occur. Unabsorbed matter is excreted in the feces.
Studies of nutritional status must take into account the state of the body before and after experiments, as well as the chemical composition of the diet and the products of excretion. Comparing the food to the waste can help determine the specific compounds and elements absorbed in the body. Their effects may only be discernible after an extended period of time, during which all food and waste must be analyzed. The number of variables involved in such experiments is high, making nutritional studies time-consuming and expensive, which explains why the science of human nutrition is still slowly evolving.
In general, eating a wide variety of fresh, whole (unprocessed), foods has proven favourable compared to monotonous diets based on processed foods. In particular, the consumption of whole plant foods slows digestion and provides higher amounts, and a more favourable balance, of essential nutrients per Calorie, resulting in better management of cell growth, maintenance, and mitosis (cell division), as well as better regulation of appetite and blood sugar. Regularly scheduled meals (every few hours) have also proven more wholesome than infrequent, haphazard ones.
2.8 Other nutrients
2.8.2 Essential fatty acids
2.9 Intestinal bacterial flora
2.10 Balanced diet
2.11 Junk food
3 Sports nutrition
3.2 Water and salts
4.1 Whole plant food diet
4.2 The French “paradox”
5.1 Illnesses caused by improper nutrient consumption
5.2 Mental agility
5.3 Mental disorders
5.5 Metabolic syndrome
6 Processed foods
7 Advice and guidance
7.1 Governmental policies
8.1 Antiquity through 1900
8.2 1900 through 1941
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Essay/summary About Nutrition? I want an essay or summary about nutrition and what is the function of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, fibres, minerals, vitamins and water. please and thank you.
Nutrition is a science that examines the relationship between diet and health. Dietitians are health professionals who specialize in this area of study, and are trained to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice and interventions. In the U.S., Dietitians are registered with the American Dietetic Association and are only able to use the label “Dietitian” when they have met strict, specific educational and experiential prerequisites and passed a national registration examination. Anyone may call themselves a Nutritionist,including unqualified personnel, as this term is unregulated.
Deficienciess, excesses and imbalances in diet can produce negative impacts on health, which may lead to diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, scurvy, obesity or osteoporosis, as well as psychological and behavioral problems. Moreover, excessive ingestion of elements that have no apparent role in health, (e.g. lead, mercury, PCBs, dioxins), may incur toxic and potentially lethal effects, depending on the dose.
Many common diseases and their symptoms can often be prevented or alleviated with better nutrition. The science of nutrition attempts to understand how and why specific dietary aspects influence health.
 Essential and non-essential amino acids
The body requires amino acids to produce new body protein (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance) that are lost in the urine. In animals amino acid requirements are classified in terms of essential (an animal cannot produce them) and non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen containing compounds) amino acids. Consuming a diet that contains adequate amounts of essential (but also non-essential) amino acids is particularly important for growing animals, who have a particularly high requirement.
Mineral and/or vitamin deficiency or excess may yield symptoms of diminishing health such as goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, weak immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature aging, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others.
As of 2005, twelve vitamins and about the same number of minerals are recognized as “essential nutrients”, meaning that they must be consumed and absorbed – or, in the case of vitamin D, alternatively synthesized via UVB radiation – to prevent deficiency symptoms and death. Certain vitamin-like substances found in foods, such as carnitine, have also been found essential to survival and health, but these are not strictly “essential” to eat because the body can produce them from other compounds. Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food (particularly in fresh vegetables), which have many known and yet to be explored properties adding a ntioxidant activity (see below). Other essential nutrients include essential amino acids, choline and the essential fatty acids.
 Fatty acids
In addition to sufficient intake, an appropriate balance of essential fatty acids – omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids – has been discovered to be crucial for maintaining health. Both of these unique “omega” long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins which function as hormones. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (which can be made in the body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (LNA), or taken in through marine food sources), serves as building block for series 3 prostaglandins (e.g. weakly-inflammation PGE3). The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) serves as building block for series 1 prostaglandins (e.g. anti-inflammatory PGE1), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) serves as building block for series 2 prostaglandins (e.g. pro-inflammatory PGE 2). Both DGLA and AA are produced from the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) in the body, or can be taken in directly through food. An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which partly explains the importance of omega-3/omega-6 balance for cardiovascular health. In industrialised societies, people generally consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils that have reduced amounts of essential fatty acids along with an excessive amount of omega-6 relative to omega-3.
The rate of conversions of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the respective prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2. Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 produced from AA toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 produced from DGLA. Moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation). Because different types and amounts of food eaten/absorbed affect insulin, glucagon and other hormones to varying degrees, not only the amount of omega-3 versus omega-6 eaten but also the general composition of the diet therefore determine health implications in relation to essential fatty acids, inflammation (e.g. immune function) and mitosis (i.e. cell division).
Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function (i.e. insulin resistance) as a decisive factor in many disease states. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microinjuries and clot formation (i.e. heart disease) and exaggerated cell division (i.e. cancer). Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (the so-called metabolic syndrome) are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity, elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol. The negative impact of hyperinsulinemia on prostaglandin PGE1/PGE2 balance may be significant.
The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance. Although the association between overfatness and insulin resistance is clear, the exact (likely multifarious) causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. Importantly, it has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake and reducing glycemic load (see below) all can reverse insulin resistance in overfat individuals (and thereby lower blood sugar levels in those who have type 2 diabetes).
Obesity can unfavourably alter hormonal and metabolic status via resistance to the hormone leptin, and a vicious cycle may occur in which insulin/leptin resistance and obesity aggravate one another. The vicious cycle is putatively fuelled by continuously high insulin/leptin stimulation and fat storage, as a result of high intake of strongly insulin/leptin stimulating foods and energy. Both insulin and leptin normally function as satiety signals to the hypothalamus in the brain; however, insulin/leptin resistance may reduce this signal and therefore allow continued overfeeding despite large body fat stores. In addition, reduced leptin signalling to the brain may reduce leptin’s normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate.
There is debate about how and to what extent different dietary factors — e.g. intake of processed carbohydrates, total protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, intake of saturated and trans fatty acids, and low intake of vitamins/minerals — contribute to the development of insulin- and leptin resistance. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may potentially overwhelm the environment’s ability to maintain ‘homeostasis’, the recent explosive introduction of high Glycemic Index- and processed foods into the human diet may potentially overwhelm the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis and health (as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic).
Antioxidants are another recent discovery. As cellular metabolism/energy production requires oxygen, potentially damaging (e.g. mutation causing) compounds known as radical oxygen species or free radicals form as a result. For normal cellular maintenance, growth, and division, these free radicals must be sufficiently neutralized by antioxidant compounds, some produced by the body with adequate precursors (glutathione, Vitamin C in most animals) and those that the body cannot produce may only be obtained through the diet through direct sources (Vitamin C in humans, Vitamin A, Vitamin K) or produced by the body from other compounds (Beta-carotene converted to Vitamin A by the body, Vitamin D synthesized from cholesterol by sunlight). Different antioxidants are now known to function in a cooperative network, e.g. vitamin C can reactivate free radical-containing glutathione or vitamin E by accepting the free radical itself, and so on. Some antioxidants are more effective than others at neutralizing different free radicals. Some cannot neutralize certain free radicals. Some cannot be present in certain areas of free radical development (Vitamin A is fat-soluble and protects fat areas, Vitamin C is water soluble and protects those areas). When interacting with a free radical, some antioxidants produce a different free radical compound that is less dangerous or more dangerous than the previous compound. Having a variety of antioxidants allows any byproducts to be safely dealt with by more efficient antioxidants in neutralizing a free radical’s butterfly effect.
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Vital Books On Nutrition? Hi,
my girlfriend would like to start learnign about nutrition befor taking up a course and later a career in the area.
Can anyone advise me on books that are considered the “bibles” of nutrition for professionals and beginners alike. Nothing too scientific but nothing too “nutrition for dummies” either.
Any good high school text book on nutrition would be accepted by most ‘nutrtionists’ these days.
After reading your question I saw you were interested in optimizing your nutrition [(-:] so I thought I would give you some pointers I have learned the hard way from my own bad ‘uninformed’ choices so you could learn about good advice and bad advice.
A 'reference' diet plan is given below in PS1 that I have found to be the best possible nutrition for me to cure my heart disease problem from too many carbs for too long. It is also the best diet to help with my present health issues – that I know are cholesterol and calcium related because these foods are triggers for me now.
I used to be an old advocate of Atkins diet before I knew what I now know, so nowadays I do not recommend Atkins high protein and fat diet for long term but would always recommend a “high- nutrition” 96% VEGAN diet replacing most meat with lentils – but many people will not do this. Sooo even though I give a diet plan in PS1 below, let me share a little first to help you understand how losing and gaining weight can best be done to be stronger and healthier for the long term.
You may already know this but if not let me first explain that keeping to a plan that fights against bad habits that might be on the verge of seriously tearing down your body is sometimes pretty tough – but being fit and strong versus being overweight and/or sickly is all about (1) how many calories you eat versus how many you burn and (2) IF your calories are primarily the BEST QUALITY PROTEINS or primarily junk sugar-carbs.
Please consider that it is not just how few cabs and fats and how much lean protein you eat in order to become ‘stronger,’ but how many absorbable non-toxic vitamin and minerals are obtained from the protein or fats you would eat.
For instance, egg whites have 89% protein, but egg whites are similar in its nutrition per calorie as to eating sweet corn that usually has only about 15% protein. So even though the higher protein egg whites 'look' good IF ALL you look at is the protein content, it is really not much better for you than sweet corn.
Not good if you understand that they identified the pellagra problem in the 1930's south was the result of the high calories and minimal amounts of vitamins and minerals caused by a diet of primarily sweet corn. [See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pellagra ] This disease has identical long term health effects as the scurvy and beriberi problems that are also a result of eating too many calories with not enough nutrients. They cured pellagra in dogs by giving them liver and brewers yeast, but the problem with these are the long term effects of cholesterol in the liver and the short term toxic effects of elemental copper in the brewers yeast that is the rust residue from the vats the yeast is grown in.
A similar lesser nutrition choice would be when eating tenderloin versus spinach. Boiled spinach has about 56% protein to beef tenderloin's 61% protein, but spinach has almost 700%, or seven times, the vitamin and minerals of tenderloin calorie per calorie. The problem with spinach is that the spinach calories would cost about ten times the cost of beef calories. Spending $50 per day to eat several pounds of spinach may make any animal as strong as an elite triple-crown race horse, but few people can afford to spend that much for their food – so meat protein is what people typically consume. Even so, many longevity experts like Roy L. Walford, M.D. and Joel Fuhrman M. D. encourage their clients to eat 200 calories of leafy greens a day – which would cost about $10 per day but it is a small price to pay when considering the strength, longevity, and good health it would promote.
Take a few minutes to understand 'good' nutritional advice versus poor advice and I hope you will have learned something from my 'mistakes' that will soon help you along your way.
My best to you and for your good health,
PS1 - This is my diet plan since I became a 96% VEGAN:
Your body's fat with no water in it has 9 calories per gram which is about 4091 calories per pound of fat. The number usually used for body fat is 3500 calories which 'assumes' 14.4% water in an average person's fat, but this would depend upon if you ate salty or spicy foods a-lot before you would start a new regimen. Protein is 4 calories per gram whether you eat it or burn it from your own body, so if you burn your own your muscles will never have a-lot of cells that are decades old 'if' you stay active. I choose to lose 2 pounds a week by reducing 500 calories a day and adding 70 minutes of exercise five times a week to burn 500 calories each time. Also, you will lose a lot of water weight when you eliminate salt and spicy foods, probably about four to five to ten pounds the first two weeks.
To minimize the meat-cholesterol in my own diet I have seen that the requirements of B12 can only be obtained from eating 4 ounces of beef heart every 4 days for 16% Cholesterol, or 4 oz of beef round steak every 2 days for 11% Cholesterol, or 4 oz of beef liver every 30 days for 4% Cholesterol. Soo I suppose I am a 96% VEGAN in order to satisfy the Fed's present B12 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA).
I crock pot for 12 hours ground up beef heart and eat it with lentils and spinach in one meal to improve the foods passage through my gut to the stool and to buffer my digestion/elimination since eating meat alone 'used_to' cause reddish stools for me.
For each 1000 calories I eat 100 to 200 calories of squeeze drained spinach with a light_sugar_vinaigrette, 600 cals from 15 ozs of organic lentils w/ 100 cals of tomato marinara or if might be allergic then please use onion flakes instead of tomatoes, [SEEhttp://www.tomatocasual.com/2008/03/01/tomato-allergies-part-i/#comment-10748 ] and no_more_than 200 calories of 'meat' which is about 4 ozs, and rarely rarely chicken, since chicken has only ~68% the nutrition per calorie of properly grown lentils, while beef heart has ~127% and organic spinach has ~500%, five times, the nutrition per calorie of 'organically' grown lentils.
Again, I hope this helps you or others to understand good choices.
PS2 - I posted 'my_story' and why I know what I know at:
What Is Plant Nutrition? I am trying to complete an assignment about bean seedlings and how changing the amount of nitrogen that the intake will change their growth rate, but i don’t fully understand what plant nutrition is. If you could help that would be great. (:
Nutrition is all the good things that plants need to grow strong and healthy.
Plants need minerals, water, oxygen and light to grow healthy. Plants get all their nutrition from the soil. The nutrition needs to pass easily into the roots. Nitrogen is an important compound that is in the air and in soil.
If you take away one substance (nutrition) the plant will be weak and easily die. In the experiment that you are doing it is the nitrogen that you are testing. What the experiment is saying is do plants (seedlings) need nitrogen?
Does that make any sense?
Nutrition Research Paper Topic Suggestions? I have to do a research paper for my Nutrition class , any suggestions on a topic?? thanks people.
Nutrition information and misinformation (on the net and in the news)
Common digestive problems (e.g. ‘heartburn’, IBS, etc)
Health effects of starch and fibers
Health effects of lipids (i.e. cardiovascular problems)
Vegetarian diets (and possible protein deficiency)
Feasting vs fasting – how the body responds
Health risks associated with body weight and body fat
Problems of underweight; weight gain strategies
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Antioxidant nutrients in disease prevention
Osteoporosis and calcium
Phytochemicals and functional foods
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Childhood obesity and early development of chronic diseases
Nutrition and Nutritional genomics
Nutrition and immunity
Enteral nutrition and inborn errors of metabolism
Ethical issues in nutrition care
Multiple organ failure & nutrition
Dental health and its relationship with chronic illness
Food allergies & intolerances
Helping people with feeding disabilities
Illness, mental health, and nutrition